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Our paper presents the most comprehensive analysis of changes in the structure of ecological communities in tropical and sub-tropical forests as a result of land-use change, and the first analysis from the PREDICTS Project. We show that the biggest differences are in areas of human-dominated land uses, with more people, more removal of vegetation by humans and less forest cover. Importantly, we show that different species are affected differently, with greater losses of narrowly distributed species and species that specialize on forest habitat, and smaller losses of widely distributed species that are less dependent on forest habitat.